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World Bank Project




(Equal Opportunity For Persons With Disabilities)

1.1 Summary

1.1.1 Project Title:- Equal Opportunity for Persons with Disabilities

1.1.2 General Objective: -

· To address the problem related with public toilet service in Addis Ababa and to create employment opportunity for PWDs.

1.1.3 Duration / Year:- One Year

1.1.4 Time of Commencement (Date of Agreement):- 29 January 2004

1.1.5 Area of Operation:- Entire City of Addis Ababa

1.1.6 Type of Beneficiaries:- 150 – 250 Disabled Cooperatives Members

· Direct (male and female): - 150 – 250

· Indirect (male and female):- 600 – 800 Their Families

P.O.Box 18430

E-mail: efpd@telecom.net.et

1.1.8 Implementing Agency:- Ethiopian Federation of Persons with Disabilities

1.1.9 Donor:- International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)

1.1.10 Total Budget:- USD 200,000

· Direct Project Cost:- 120,000

· Administration Cost:- 80,000

1. Background and Justification

Most of Addis Ababa’s estimated three million population live in slums and informal settlements, where thousands of dwellers live in over crowded and unhygienic conditions. Such settlements are breeding ground for infectious and contagious diseases. 68% households live in extremely low quality single and two room dwelling units, 24% of housing units have no toilets at all. 45% share pit latrines. Squatting latrines, defecting in open space and plastic bags (flying toilets) are widespread. Excreta related diseases are among leading causes of morbidity (17.1%) in Addis Ababa (Welfare monitoring Survey 2000). There is a dire need for public toilet service that provides comprehensive service, including shower bath. Existing public toilets are inadequate, unevenly distributed with design problems. Public toilet misuse and vandalism are common. Only 28 of 72 public toilets are operational. To improve services the City Administration (AACA) estimates that 208 new must be built, and the existing toilets should be rehabilitated and renovated to provide comprehensive public toilet service. Based on UN estimates about 10% of the city dwellers are persons with disabilities (PWDs), which comprise the poorest social group. Disability is both the cause and consequence of poverty. PWDs are extremely marginalized and have very little access to social and economic services. This aggravates their voiceless ness and powerlessness. Although they are able and want to work, their unemployment rate (80%) is higher than any other social group. A World Bank study estimates the annual loss of GDP globally; due to having so may PWDs out of work at between US$ 1.37 trillion and US$ 1.94 trillion. Despite the growing attention given to the socio – economic integration of PWDs, the prevalent stereotyped classification of this significant segment of society under “Disadvantaged Group” has undermined the priority they deserved in development goals, including the recently prepared PRSP.

2. General Objective

According to WHO improvement in human excreta disposal could reduce diseases by 22 percent. According to ILO, management of urban public services can be successfully contracted to local community organizations. It is known that Addis Ababa’s poor and the main user of public toilets. A recent user survey indicated that users are willing to pay about 3 US cents provided improvement is made. On going reforms at the AACA to privatize municipal services provides enabling framework. A generic business plan for privatization of public toilets shows, that, at a price of 2.3 US cents, profitable and positive cash flow is possible. Further, low-income city dwellers are also willing to pay 12 – 17 US cents for a public shower – bath. The need of the poor city dwellers for laundry is another potential area of expanding public toilet services. It is possible to renovate existing toilets with low financial outlays, using existing structures, and increasing existing capacity, to provide comprehensive service to the poor, by diversifying the breadth of services-while at the same time generating income. Initially, it is technically and economically feasible to renovate the existing toilets to provide both toilet and shower bath service and to incorporate basic structures that would be used to accommodate future expansion into public laundry service, at a later period during the life of the project. 

3. Specific Objectives

The plan requires:

3.1 Investment

30 existing public toilets that are located at densely populated dwelling areas, intercity transport terminals, market centers will be selected, rehabilitated and renovated to provide comprehensive public toilet service,. They will provide public toilet service for an average of 1200 persons per day, each and a public shower – bath service for up to 60 persons per day. Exploring future expansion and diversification of services will continue during the life of the project. 

3.2 Cost Recovery

Since users are willing to pay as long as service quality is maintained the toilets will be managed on commercial principles. 

3.3 Management

The Addis Ababa City Administration will contract out 30 existing public toilets for at least 10 – 15 years, to ten cooperative of poor persons with disabilities (fifty percent male and fifty percent female), organized under a Union for common services. Support from disability organizations and small enterprise development organizations will be provided to the Union. A project advisory board composed of representatives from the Union, EFPD, the AACA, the Addis Ababa City Micro and Small Trade Development Agency and the ILO will oversee the management of the project. EFPD will strengthen the institutional capacity of the Union and the 10 cooperatives.

4. Results

By the end of the project public toilet use in each privatized municipal toilet will increase from an average of the current level that fluctuates between 175 and 450 persons per day per toilet to 1200. In addition to strengthening the capacity of toilets in terms of the renovation of the existing toilets it will diversify the breadth of service. Additional new service – public shower bath – will be provided to an average of 50 – 60 persons per day per toilet. The renovation will also prepare the existing structure of the toilets to accommodate future expansion in to public laundry service. The project will also provide income for 150 to 250 unemployed women and men with disabilities. PWDs that will be engaged by the cooperatives will each earn an average of USD 35 per month. Among other outcomes: increased women’s safe utilization of public toilets, improved cleanness and usage of public toilets, increased accessibility of toilet services to street vendors, homeless people reduction of excreta related diseases, making public toilet services accessible to persons with disabilities. The new public toilet management system and manual produced by the project will help other public toilets run profitable. In addition positive inspection reports on toilets, satisfied users, positive cash flow, employed PWDs earning income, Audited Accounts of Cooperatives are some of the out put indicators that will demonstrate the success of the project.

5. Activities and Strategies

EFPD will manage the project in collaboration with AACA. It will organize the support to the cooperative organized including the training of personnel and institutional capacity building. It will implement the project by carrying out the following activities:

5.1 Organize project advisor board composed of representatives from union, EFPD, and relevant city Administration Agencies.

5.2 Select 30 existing public toilets; complete modalities for out sourcing the toilets for 10 – 15 years period.

5.3 Hire project personnel for the project.

5.4 Hire local consultant architect and engineers to design the renovation to prepare technical specification and bidding documents and help evaluate bids.

5.5 Identify and commission training providers that provide:

5.5.1 Toilet cleaning, maintenance skill and customer handling training for 150 cooperative members.

5.5.2 A special training in personnel, financial, management and leadership.

For 15 cooperative leaders.

5.6 In collaboration with ILO, identify a country where better public toilet service is provided on a commercial basis, contact and arrange experience sharing Study Tour for 5 key union leaders and project team members.

5.7 Issue and evaluate competitive bids to renovate selected toilets, sign contract with winners and award the renovation work.

5.8 Commence training of cooperative members and leaders.

5.9 Develop financial (record keeping, revenue collection, auditing), materials handling (purchase and supply), maintenance, operation, monitoring and evaluation system, which will be sued by the Union and cooperatives.

5.10 Design user education strategy and materials.

5.11 Carry out, monitor and complete:

5.11.1 Renovation of selected toilets,

5.11.2 The training of cooperative members and Union leaders,

5.11.3 Policy manuals and implement the developed system.

Identify institutional capacity needs of the cooperatives and the Union to run the public toilet service and start capacity building.

5.12 Start user education.

5.13 Conduct the experience sharing study tour.

5.14 Open the renovated toilets to public generate income and continue user education.

5.15 Issue monthly financial and operational report, monitor the progress of the public toilet service, identify further training needs and additional user education needs.

5.16 Develop manual on public toilet management; conduct the economic and technical feasibility of starting public laundry service in selected 10 public toilets that are renovated for this purpose.

5.17 Commence pilot public laundry service based on the feasibility study. Prepare TOR to evaluate the impact of the project.

5.18 Conduct refresher training for identified union leaders and cooperative members.

5.19 Conduct public service user survey. Support the union and cooperatives to prepare three years strategic plan and a detailed work plan for the following year.

5.20 Evaluate the impact of the project, organize a workshop on the impact of the project, publish and 

6. Inputs

6.1 Personnel

· Consultancy local architect engineers,

· Project Coordinator,

· Clerical Staff and 2 Drivers 

6.2 Materials and Equipment

· Office furniture and equipment for offices of the cooperative

· 1 vehicle

· Construction: Renovating 3 public toilets

· Toilet and Cleaning materials 

6.3 Training

· Training on toilet cleaning and customer handling for 150 persons

· Management and leadership training for 15 leaders

· Toilet maintenance skill training for 30 persons

· Skill up grading/refresher training for 100 persons

· Study tour to one selected country 

6.4 Evaluation/Information Dissemination

· User education campaign 25 ten minutes Radio Program

· 5000 copies of leaflets and 5000 copies of brochures and stickers

· 5000 posters

· Developing and publishing 100 copies of public toilet

· Management manual

· User survey at 30 toilets

· Final Evaluation and one day workshop

· Publishing proceedings

6.5 General Administration / Overhead

· Tele/fax/internet,

· Office Supplies

· Rent

· Utility

· Fuel, Lubricant and maintain

· Audit

· Insurance.

7. Organizations and Management


The Addis Ababa City Administration will contract out 30 existing public toilets for at least 10 – 15 years, to a cooperative of poor persons with disabilities (fifty percent male and fifty percent female), organized under a union for common services. Support from disability organizations and small enterprise development organizations will be provided to the Union. A project advisory board composed of representatives from the cooperative, EFPD, the AACA, the Addis Ababa City Micro and Small Trade Development Agency and the ILO will oversee the management of the project. EFPD will strengthen the institutional capacity of the cooperative. 

Annex - 1: Activity / Physical Plan


Ser. No.





Unit Measurement

Total Qty. Annual

Quarter Target



Out Put










Project Direct Cost









Direct Project Personnel Salary







Capacity Building


Cooperative Staff one year salary







“ “


Recruitment of Direct Project Staff







“ “


Direct Project Staff Employee Benefit







“  “









10 Offices Furnished









10 Offices equipped


Renovation Design of 30 Public Toilets







Design Report, Bid Document


Renovation cost of 30 Public Toilets